Sunday, 19 October 2014

South-East Brazil 26 June - 19 July, 2003


SOUTH-EAST BRAZIL

26th June to 19th July 2003

David & John F. Cooper




ITINERARY

Thu 26/6/03: Arrived at Rio de Janeiro Airport courtesy of Air Portugal on time at 3.30pm where encountered a long queue at Immigration, SARS screening and finally made it to the Localiza Car Hire Desk collecting our small car at 5.30pm just as it was getting dark. Driving decidedly hairy at first in the vicinity of the Airport but soon on our way to Teresopolis arriving at 8pm where we had difficulty in finding any Hotels until finally noticing a sign to the Hotel Mon Repos close to the entrance of Serra dos Orgaos NP. They had a twin room for 80 Reals per night. Didn’t feel hungry but very tired so went straight to bed.

Fri 27/6/03: Up an hour before dawn so drove to Garafeo for first light finding the narrow driveable track down into a reasonable area of forest. Birded from 6am to 8am before making our way to the entrance of Serra dos Orgaos NP where spent until 5pm along the San Pedro Trail. We then drove to the highest point of the road at a pass between Teresopolis and Garafao and spent the remaining hour of light at a roadside stop overlooking the forest. Found a MacDonalds Restaurant in Teresopolis before returning to the Hotel for another good night’s sleep.



 



 
Views taken in the Serra dos Orgaos NPk.


Butterfly in the Serra dos Orgaos NPk.

Sat 28/6/03: Up an hour before dawn with the objective of making an early start to a return drive to Petropolis before Serra dos Orgaos NP opened only to find our car had a flat rear tyre. JFC quickly changed the tyre that we quickly had repaired at a garage in Teresopolis where they refused to charge us for this service. We were still leaving Teresopolis by 6.30am finding the road to Petropolis passed through much better habitat than we had expected so we didn’t make it back to Serra dos Orgaos NP until 10am where again walked the San Pedro Trail until 3pm before 2 hours along the Mozart Catao Trail which was at a lower elevation and passed several impressive stands of bamboo. Returned to MacDonalds before again returning to the Hotel that now appeared to be full.

Sun 29/6/03: Left Teresopolis at 5.30am driving to the Semiduro Road where we arrived at 7am. We birded the roadside marshes and dry forest fragments until 10am before driving to the forest patches c.8km east of Carmo arriving at 11am where we birded until 2pm before driving to the comfortable Serra dos Tucanos Lodge arriving at 5pm where we did a quick circuit of the Lodge Gardens before dark. Ate a home-cooked meal with Andy Foster and his father the owners of the Lodge.



Andy Foster's lodge at Serra dos Tucanos.


The lodge's garden.

Mon 30/6/03: Spent all day at the Serra dos Tucanos Lodge walking the Circular Trail and then the Water Pipe Trail in the morning returning to the Lodge for lunch whilst we experienced the only rain of the trip. After lunch we walked the Entrance Track before again trying both the Circular and Water Pipe Trails.



Views taken from the trails around the Serra dos Tucanos lodge.


Mammals at Serra dos Tucanos.

Tues 1/7/03: Walked round the Lodge gardens before a quick breakfast and then drove to the start of the Bamboo Trail where we spent the whole day walking to the small farm and back.


View taken from the bamboo trail at Serra dos Tucanos.


Weds 2/7/03: Again walked round the Lodge gardens before a quick breakfast and then drove to the start of the Theodoro Trail where we walked down to the road and back returning to the car at 3.30pm. Drove back to the Lodge and watched the Hummingbird feeders until dark.



Butterflies seen around Serra dos Tucanos.


 
Plant at Serra dos Tucanos.

Thurs 3/7/03: Left Serra dos Tucanos at 6.50am and drove to Semiduro where we stopped for an hour before making the long drive to Caraca NP arriving at 5pm just as the Entrance Gate was being closed. Drove onto the Monastery where we booked into the cheapest basic room at R80 and ate bread and bananas we’d bought enroute.


Our first view of the monastery at the Caraca National Park, our
home for the next 3 nights.




Maned Wolf at the monastery in the Caraca Nat. Park.
During the evenings, the monks put our food for the local wild Maned Wolves
and one often comes to the veranda for this. 

Fri 4/7/03: Walked to Tanque Grande then the Ponte Dobode (Green) Trail before again trying the Tanque Grande Trail before walking back to the monastery lookout where we spent the evening eating more bread and bananas.




Our early morning walk around Lake Tanque Grande.


 




Better views of the monastery from the Tanque Grande Trail.

Sat 5/7/03: Walked the Cruzeira Trail then the Cascatona Trail before returning to the monastery and again walked the Tanque Grande Trail before returning to the monastery where we bought an Egg and Bacon Burger at the small café before again walking to the start of the Tanque Grande Trail.


View in the Caraca National Park.


Plant in the Caraca National Park



Butterfly in the National Park

Sun 6/7/03: Started at the Monastery Viewpoint before our final walk to Tanque Grande. Packed the car and before leaving Caraca NP walked the Piscina and Semiduro Trails. We then drove to Cipo finding a Caravan Park where we rented a chalet for R80 before driving to the summit to try and get our bearings – the new road having somewhat confused us.


David at the summit at Cipo.

Mon 7/7/03: Spent all day along the Cipo road concentrating around the first summit.


View taken at Cipo


Orchids at Cipo.

Tues 8/7/03: Walked the road just above Cipo Village before leaving at 8am and driving to Serra da Canastra NP where we arrived at 3pm. Found a room in Sao Roque de Minas and then drove the entrance track in the foothills of the escarpment.

Weds 9/7/03: Spent all day visiting the lower areas of Serra da Canastra NP trying the trail to the bottom of Casca D’Anta waterfall and then the campsite. Returned to Sao Roque de Minas in the evening.


Casca D’Anta Waterfall in the Serra da Canastra NP.

Thur 10/7/03: JFC’s birthday spent up the top of the escarpment visiting the top of Casca D’Anta Waterfall and then Sites D & E in Forrester’s Guide. We then drove to C and then Rolinho F where we finally found a pair of Brazilian Mergansers – the ideal Birthday present.

Fri 11/7/03: Spent the morning along the lower road and the afternoon back up on top of the escarpment.

Sat 12/7/03: Left Sao Roque de Minas at 5.30am and drove to Ubatuba arriving at 3pm where we found a Hotel for R65.




Views taken around Ubatuba

Sun 13/7/03: Spent all day at Fazenda Angelim.



Butterfly at Fazenda Angelim.

Mon 14/7/03: Spent the morning at Corcorvado mainly in the vicinity of the clearing before making a late afternoon visit to Capricorno.

Tues 15/7/03: Returned to Fazenda Angelim from 7am until 11am and then drove to the Agulhas Negras road where we birded from 3pm until dark staying at the nearby Hotel Palmital where they reduced the price to R70 and an ex-pat Barry convinced the management to take pity on us and give us a free meal which was an amazing steak and chips.



Views taken from the Agulhas Negras road.

Wed 16/7/03: Spent until 2.30pm along the Agulhas Negras road before driving to Itatiaia NP where we watched the Chocolate shop Hummingbird feeders before finding a room at the Hotel Donati where they reduced the price to R125 including breakfast.


Marshy area along the Agulhas Negras road.

Thur 17/7/03: Walked the Cachoeira Iguniera Trail and then walked from Hotel Donati to Hotel Ype via Hotel Simon along the Maromba Trail.

Fri 18/7/03: Walked the trail towards Hotel Simon and then drove to Hotel Simon and walked the Tres Picos Trail for 6 hours. We then drove to the waterfall before returning to the Hotel Simon Tennis Courts for a spotlighting session.


Hotel Simon, taken from the Tres Picos trail, Itatiaia Nat. Park.


Monkey along the Tres Picos trail, Itatiaia Nat. Park.

Sat 19/7/03: Walked the Hotel Donati Swimming Pool Trail where we scored with an obliging Variegated Antpitta proving a grande finale to the trip. We then drove to the Itatiaia NP Entrance gate and watched the Chocolate Shop Hummingbird feeders before a brief visit to the Itatiaia Marsh before leaving at 11am for Rio de Janeiro Airport.

Systematic List

Greater Rhea – Rhea americana
We saw a group of 7 whilst driving the track leading to the Casca D’Anta Waterfall on top of the escarpment (see Forrester (1993)) at Canastra NP on the 10th. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as fairly common in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations. TBW (2000) includes this species as Near-threatened stating ‘in recent years, the large-scale conversion of central South American grasslands for agriculture and cattle-ranching has considerably reduced and fragmented its available habitat, particularly in the pampas and cerrado strongholds’.

Brown Tinamou – Crypturellus obsoletus obsoletus
A single individual was seen walking ahead of us along the Maromba Trail linking Hotel Donati and Hotel Simon not far from the edge of the Hotel Donati clearing early in the morning on the 17th. HBW (1992) states that ‘in Brazil it has increased notably in the last century, perhaps due to decline of Solitary Tinamou T. solitarius.’

Tataupa Tinamou – Crypturellus tataupa tataupa
We obtained close views of a pair as they crept away from us down a slope further into a patch of forest having initially flushed them from near the edge of a driveable track through a small patch of remnant forest just north of the road c.8km east of Carmo on the 29th. HBW (1992) states that ‘may suffer from habitat destruction, but probably more adaptable than other members of genus’.

Lesser Nothura – Nothura minor (Endemic)
We saw 1 buff and 2 rufescent individuals (HBW (1992) states ‘these may constitute distinct colour phases’) on the edge of the main track whilst driving on top of the escarpment at Canastra between the Administration buildings and the Casca D’Anta Waterfall (see Forrester (1993)) early in the morning of the 10th. This species is treated by by Silveira (1998) as endemic to the cerrado region of southeast Brazil and is listed as rare in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations – the article contains a photograph of a buff individual. TBW (2000) treats it as Vulnerable stating that it ‘has been recently recorded from very few sites over a large range’ and details post-1980 records from just seven sites (including Serra da Canastra) listing the rapid and extensive conversion of cerrado grasslands as presumably the cause of a rapid population reduction.

Spotted Nothura – Nothura maculosa maculosa
We saw 2 on the main track whilst driving on top of the escarpment at Canastra NP between the Administration buildings and the Casca D’Anta Waterfall (see Forrester (1993)) on the 10th. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as common in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations. HBW (1992) states that this species is ‘one of the commonest Tinamous, presently in expansion, due to deforestation and agricultural developments’.

Least Grebe – Tachybaptus dominicus speciosus
We saw a single individual on the lake next to the road at the campsite 3km west of Jose de Barreiro (see Forrester (1993)) on the 9th. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as fairly common in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations.

Neotropic Cormorant – Phalacrocorax brasilianus brasilianus
We saw 10 on lakes whilst driving between Canastra NP and Ubatuba on the 12th, 4 whilst driving alongside the river west of Passos on the 15th and 4 near Rio de Janeiro Airport on the 19th.

Anhinga – Anhinga anhinga anhinga
We saw 1 whilst driving alongside the river just west of Passos on the 15th

Magnificent Frigatebird – Fregata magnificens
We saw up to 10 on a day on three dates whilst at the coast at Ubatuba and 8 near Rio de Janeiro Airport on the 19th.


Magnificent Frigatebird at Ubatuba

Great Egret – Egretta alba egretta
We saw 2 near Semiduro on the 29th and 1 there on the 3rd, up to 10 were seen on a day on three dates whilst at the coast at Ubatuba and 6 were seen near Rio de Janeiro Airport on the 19th.


Great Egret & Black Vulture at Ubatuba
                                 
Snowy Egret – Egretta thula brewsteri
We saw a group of 25 stood on the beach at Ubatuba on the 15th and 1 at Itatiaia Marsh on the 16th and 19th.


Snowy & Great Egrets at Ubatuba

Cattle Egret – Bubulcus ibis ibis
Seen on ten dates often being noted whilst travelling but including at the Semiduro area, Ubatuba and the Itatiaia Marsh. A daily maximum of 100 was estimated on the 29th.

Whistling Heron – Syrigma sibilatrix sibilatrix
We saw 7 along the road adjacent to the Rio Sao Francisco near Canastra NP on the 11th. We also saw 1 at Ubatuba on the 13th. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as uncommon in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations.

Buff-necked Ibis – Theristicus caudatus hyperorius
We saw a party of 4 in fields adjacent to the good forest near Jose de Barreiro (see Forrester (1993)) on the 11th. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as fairly common in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations.

Brazilian Teal – Amazonetta brasiliensis
We saw three pairs on a small pool near Semiduro on the 3rd.




Brazilian Teals near Semiduro
                                 
Brazilian Merganser – Mergus octosetaceus
We finally found a pair after two days of searching between the Cachoeira do Rasga Canga and the Cachoeira do Rolinho at Canastra NP on the 10th. After watching them asleep on rocks, they flew towards us, and landed at a pool in the River at a range of c.30m where they behaved in unison whilst vocalising. Superb. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as fairly common in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations and details six mature pairs and 22 individuals being found along the main rivers and streams of the region during a population census conducted in April-December 1996. However, TBW (2000) lists it as Critical and speculates that ‘the population is likely to be lower than the 250 birds estimated in 1992’.









 


Brazilian Mergansers in Canastra National Park


John looking very happy after photographing the Mergansers on his birthday.

King Vulture – Sarcoramphus papa
A single individual was seen in flight whilst we were driving between Belo Horizonte and Canastra NP on the 8th.

Black Vulture – Coragyps atratus brasilienus
The only species to be seen daily throughout the trip with good numbers always recorded on days we had to travel between sites. A daily maximum of 300 was estimated on the 3rd.


Black Vultures

Turkey Vulture – Cathartes aura ruficollis
Seen on ten dates being noted at Semiduro, Cipo, Canastra NP and near Rio de Janeiro with a daily maximum of 5 noted on three dates.

White-tailed Kite – Elanus leucurus leucurus
A single individual was seen just north of Belo Horizonte on the 6th.

Grey-headed Kite – Leptodon cayanensis monachus
A single individual was seen flying along the Rio Sao Francisco in Canastra NP below the Casca D’Anta Waterfall on the 9th. Silveira (1998) regards this species as hypothetical at Serra da Canastra having only been recorded by only one author, being Forrester (1993).

Black-chested Buzzard-Eagle – Geranoaetus melanoleucus melanoleucus
A single individual was seen above Sao Roque de Minas near Canastra NP on the 9th. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as fairly common in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations.

White-tailed Hawk – Buteo albicaudatus albicaudatus
We saw 2 between Teresopolois and Petropolis on the 28th, 1 near Semiduro on the 29th, an impressive gathering of 30 at a roadside fire east of Belo Horizonte on the 3rd, up to 2 seen on a day on three dates at Canastra NP and 1 along the Agulhas Negras road on the 16th. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as common in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations.



 White Tailed Hawk at Belo Horizonte

Short-tailed Hawk – Buteo brachyurus brachyurus
We saw 1 rare (Ferguson-Lees (2001)) dark morph individual c.8km east of Carmo on the 29th, 2 pale morph individuals along the Campo de Fora Trail at Caraca NP on the 4th and another pale morph individual whilst driving between Canastra NP and Ubatuba on the 12th.

Roadside Hawk – Buteo magnirostris magniplumis
Seen on twelve dates being seen between Teresopolis and Petropolis, Serra dos Tucanos, Canastra NP, Ubatuba and near Rio de Janeiro. A daily maximum of 5 were seen whilst travelling between Canastra NP and Ubatuba on the 12th. We saw 2 attending an army ant swarm at Corcovado on the 14th, being a behaviour described in Ferguson-Lees (2001).

Savanna Hawk – Butoogallus meridionalis
We saw 8 near Semiduro on the 3rd and singles on two dates at Canastra NP. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as common in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations.

Black Hawk-Eagle – Spizaetus tyrannus tyrannus
We saw 1 over the Hotel Simon in Itatiaia NP on the 17th and 2 in the air together over the Tres Picos Trail in Itatiaia NP on the 18th.


 

Black Hawk Eagle high over Itatiaia Nat. Park.

Crane Hawk – Geranospiza caerulescens flexipes
A single individual was seen in flight whilst we were driving just west of Cipo on the 8th.

Laughing Falcon – Herpetotheres cachinnans queribundus
JFC saw 1 between Teresopolis and Petropolis on the 28th and we saw another just outside Fazenda Angelim at Ubatuba on the 15th.

Barred Forest-Falcon – Micrastur ruficollis ruficollis
A single rufous morph individual was taped into view c.1km along the Agulhas Negras road on the 16th.

Yellow-headed Caracara – Milvago chimachima chimachima
Seen on twelve dates at sites including between Teresopolis and Petropolis, near Semiduro, Caraca NP, Cipo, Canastra NP and Ubatuba. A daily maximum of 8 was recorded at Canastra NP on the 11th. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as common in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations.

Southern (Crested) Caracara – Polyborus plancus plancus
Seen on eighteen dates at sites including between Teresopolis and Petropolis, near Semiduro, Serra dos Tucanos, Caraca NP, Cipo, Canastra NP, Ubatuba and Itatiaia NP. A daily maximum of 25 were seen whilst travelling from Canastra NP to Ubatuba on the 12th. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as common in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations.


Southern Caracaras at Canastra National Park

Aplomado Falcon – Falco femoralis femoralis
Singles were seen near Sao Roque de Minas on the 9th and near the bottom of the Casca D’Anta Waterfall at Canastra NP on the 11th. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as fairly common in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations.

American Kestrel – Falco sparverius cearae
Seen on six dates at sites including near Semiduro, Cipo and Canastra NP. A daily maximum of 6 was seen on the 8th. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as common in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations.

Dusky-legged Guan – Penelope obscura bronzina
We saw up to 20 in the vicinity of the Caraca NP monastery on four dates where they are tame having clearly been fed there for some time. We also saw up to 8 on three dates in Itatiaia NP where they could be seen around the Hotel Donati in the early mornings. HBW (1994) states that this species is not globally threatened.





Dusky Legged Guan at Caraca National Park

Spot-winged Wood-Quail – Odontophorus capueira capueira
After hearing at least two parties calling at dusk along the Vue de Noiva trail at Serra dos Orgaos NP on the 27th we were pleased to see a party of 3 which allowed us to obtain good views near the start of the trail on the 28th. HBW (1994) states that this species is not globally threatened.

Blackish Rail – Rallus nigricans nigricans
A pair were seen at the small Duck-pond at the Caraca NP Monastery Car Park on the 4th with 1 being seen there the following day and 1 was seen at the pool c.8km along the Agulhas Negras road on the 16th. HBW (1996) states that this species is not globally threatened.

Grey-necked Wood-Rail – Aramides cajanea cajanea
This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as common in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations. We saw a single individual on the lake next to the road at the campsite 3km west of Jose de Barreiro (see Forrester (1993)) on the 9th and a pair there on the 11th.



 


Grey Necked Wood Rail near Jose de Barreiro.

Slaty-breasted Wood-Rail – Aramides saracura
DC saw 1 at the side of the road between the entrance and the dam at Serra dos Orgaos on the 27th and 3 were seen at the pool c.8km along the Agulhas Negras road during the evening of the 16th. HBW (1996) suggests this ‘species should probably be classified as a Data Deficient species’.

Ash-throated Crake – Porzana albicollis albicollis
We coaxed 2 into view with tape-playback at the marsh at Semiduro (see JvW (2001)) during the morning of the 29th. HBW (1996) states that this species is not globally threatened.

Red-gartered Coot – Fulica armillata
We saw 2 on a lake between Canastra NP and Ubatuba on the 12th. HBW (1996) states that this species is not globally threatened.

Red-legged Seriema – Cariama cristata
We saw a group of 3 on a grassy hillside just north of Semiduro and another just north of Alem Paraiba on the 3rd, and up to four on a day on all four dates at Canastra NP. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as common in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations. HBW (1996) states that this species is not globally threatened.




Red-Legged Seriemas at Semiduro 




Red-Legged Seriema in Canastra National Park


Red-legged Seriema at roost.



Red-legged Seriemas at Canastra Nat. Park.

Wattled Jacana – Jacana jacana jacana
We saw 3 at a roadside pool just east of Carmo on the 29th and 5 at a roadside pool just north of Semiduro on the 3rd. HBW (1996) states that this species is not globally threatened.



Wattled Jacanas at Semiduro.

Southern Lapwing – Vanellus chilensis lampronotus
Seen on fourteen dates at sites including Rio de Janeirio airport, the Semiduro area, Canastra NP and Ubatuba. A daily maximum of 15 was seen on our arrival at Rio de Janeiro Airport on the 26th. HBW (1996) states that this species is not globally threatened.

Kelp Gull – Larus dominicanus
We saw 4 along the coast at Ubatuba on the 14th and 1 on the beach there the following day.

Picazuro Pigeon – Columba picazuro picazuro
Seen on eight dates at sites including Cipo, Canastra NP, Ubatuba and Itatiaia NP with a daily maximum of 20 seen on the 9th at Canastra NP. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as common in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations.

Pale-vented Pigeon – Columba cayennensis sylvestris
Only identified on four dates but probably overlooked. We saw the species on two dates at Canastra NP where a daily maximum of 20 was recorded on the 11th. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as common in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations.

Plumbeous Pigeon – Columba plumbea
Only identified on two dates but probably overlooked. We only identified the species on two dates at Itatiaia NP where singles were seen and others heard in the forest surrounding Hotel Donati on the 17th and 18th.

Eared Dove – Zenaida auriculata virgata
Only seen at Canastra NP where up to 6 were seen on a day on three dates with a daily maximum of 6 being seen on the 8th. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as fairly common in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations.

Ruddy Ground-Dove – Columbina talpacoti talpacoti
Seen on twelve dates at sites including the Semiduro area, Canastra NP, Ubatuba and Itatiaia NP with a daily maximum of 25 being seen in the vicinity of Semiduro on the 29th. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as common in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations.

Scaled Dove – Columbina squammata squammata
Only seen at Canastra NP where up to 25 were seen on a day on three dates with a daily maximum of 25 being seen on the 9th. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as common in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations.

White-tipped Dove – Leptotila verreauxi decipiens
Seen on eight dates at sites including Serra dos Tucanos, Caraca NP, Canastra NP and Ubatuba with a daily maximum of 6 seen along the Theodoro Trail at Serra dos Tucanos on the 2nd. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as common in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations.

Blue-winged Macaw – Propyrrhura maracana
We saw a pair both in flight and perched just north of Semiduro on the 3rd. TBW (2000) treats it as Vulnerable ‘because the population is now small and undergoing an observed and inferred rapid decline owing to extensive loss of habitats and trapping for the cage-bird trade’.

White-eyed Parakeet – Aratinga leucophthalmus leucophthalmus
We saw pairs between Teresopolis and Petropolis on the 28th and near Semiduro on the 29th. HBW (1997) states that this species is not globally threatened.

Golden-capped Parakeet – Aratinga auricapilla aurifrons (Endemic)
We saw 5 of these superb Parakeets perched in roadside trees in the foothills between Sao Roque de Minas and the entrance gate of Canastra NP on top of the escarpment (see Forrester (1993)) during the evening of the 8th. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as common in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations. However TBW (2000) treat this species as Vulnerable as it has ‘declined over a long period of time and has been extirpated from large parts of its wide range’ meaning ‘the remaining population is now small, severely fragmented and continuing to decline significantly’.

Peach-fronted Parakeet – Aratinga aurea
At Cipo we saw 4 on the 6th and 10 there the next day and at Canastra NP up to 25 were seen daily on all four dates there. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as common in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations. HBW (1997) states that this species is not globally threatened.



Peach Fronted Parakeet at Cipo

Maroon-bellied Parakeet – Pyrrhura frontalis frontalis
We saw 5 in the lower section of Canastra NP on the 9th, 7 at Ubatuba on the 14th and up to 10 daily on both dates in Itatiaia NP. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as common in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations. HBW (1997) states that this species is not globally threatened.

Blue-winged Parrotlet – Forpus crassirostris vividus
A flock of 30 were seen in a palm grove in Cipo village on the 7th. HBW (1997) states that this species is not globally threatened.

Plain Parakeet – Brotogeris tirica (Endemic)
Up to 4 were seen daily on all three dates at Serra dos Tucanos with a pair seen in the grounds of the lodge and 3 were seen at Ubatuba on the 14th. HBW (1997) states that this species is not globally threatened.


 

Plain Parakeet at Serra dos Tucanos

Yellow-chevroned Parakeet – Brotogeris chiriri chiriri
We saw a pair in flight over the foothills between Sao Roque de Minas and the entrance gate of Canastra NP on top of the escarpment (see Forrester (1993)) during the evening of the 8th. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as common in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations. HBW (1997) states that this species is not globally threatened.

Pileated (Red-capped) Parrot – Pionopsitta pileata
We saw a flock of 5 feeding in a tree along the Tres Picos Trail at Itatiaia NP on the 18th.

Scaly-headed Parrot – Pionus maximiliani melanoblepharus
Seen on thirteen dates at sites including between Teresopolis and Petropolis, Serra dos Tucanos, Caraca NP, Ubatuba and Itatiaia NP. A daily maximum of 15 was seen on the 30th. HBW (1997) states that this species is not globally threatened.

Red-browed Parrot – Amazona rhodocorytha (Endemic)
A pair were seen extremely well with both the red crown and speculum clearly seen as we looked down on them at close range as they flew over the foothills between Sao Roque de Minas and the entrance gate of Canastra NP on top of the escarpment (see Forrester (1993)) during the evening of the 9th perhaps proving the greatest surprise of the trip. Silveira (1998) doesn’t list this species for Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas. TBW (2000) treats the species as Endangered including a total population of just 845 birds in 1999. Although the habitat at Canastra NP doesn’t appear to suit this species TBW (2000) mentions ‘seasonally displaced individuals have been found’ and we suspect our record probably involves such individuals.  

Squirrel Cuckoo – Piaya cayana macroura
We saw 1 at Serra dos Tucanos on the 30th and 2 there on the 2nd, 1 on the 6th, 1 at Canastra NP on the 10th and singles at Ubatuba on the 13th and 15th. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as common in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations.

Smooth-billed Ani – Crotophaga ani
Seen on ten dates at sites including Semiduro, Cipo, Canastra NP and Ubatuba. A daily maximum of 30 were seen at Semiduro on the 29th. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as common in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations.



Smooth Billed Ani at Canastra Nat. Park.
Guira Cuckoo – Guira guira
Seen on eight dates at sites including Semiduro, Cipo and Canastra NP. A daily maximum of 15 were seen at Semiduro on the 29th. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as common in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations.



Guira Cuckoos at Semiduro
Barn Owl – Tyto alba tuidara
A single individual as flushed from a road cutting along the Semiduro road on the 29th.

Tawny-browed Owl – Pulsatrix koeniswaldiana
A single individual was tape-lured and then spotlighted in trees adjacent to the Hotel Simon Tennis Courts in Itatiaia NP on the 18th.

Burrowing Owl – Athene cunicularia cunicularia
We saw 2 whilst driving between Piumhi and Sao Roque de Minas on the 8th and 1 on top of the Canastra NP escarpment on the 10th. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as common in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations.

Least Nighthawk – Chordeiles pusillus pusillus
We saw 1 flying over savannah-like habitat between Cipo village and the Cipo summit during the evening of the 7th and a gathering of 4 over roadside fields near Jose de Barreiro at Canastra at dawn on the 11th. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as fairly common in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations. HBW (1999) states that this species is not globally threatened.

Scissor-tailed Nightjar – Hydropsalis torquata torquata
A single female was seen sat on the track leading through the foothills between Sao Roque de Minas and the entrance gate of Canastra NP on top of the escarpment (see Forrester (1993)) during the evening of the 9th. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as fairly common in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations.


 Female Scissor Tailed Nightjar Canastra National Park.

White-collared Swift – Streptoprocne zonaris zonaris
Seen on eight dates at sites including near Caraca NP, Cipo, Canastra including perched birds at the Casca D’Anta Waterfall, Ubatuba and near Rio de Janeiro. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as common in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations.

Great Dusky Swift – Cypseloides senex
We saw an estimated 200 at the Casca D’Anta Waterfall early in the morning on the 9th with birds perching on the cliffs under the falls. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as uncommon in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations. HBW (1999) states that this species is not globally threatened.

Grey-rumped Swift – Chaetura cinereiventris cinereiventris
Around 50 were identified at Fazenda Capricorno at Ubatuba on the 14th.

Saw-billed Hermit – Ramphodon naevius (Endemic)
Singles were seen at the Serra dos Tucanos feeders on the 30th, 2nd and 3rd, at Fazenda Angelim on the 13th and at the Fazenda Capricorno feeders on the 14th. Superb. TBW (2000) treats this species as Near-threatened stating that current key threats are urbanisation, industrialisation, agricultural expansion, colonisation and associated road-building.


Saw Billed Hermit at Serra dos Tucan


Saw Billed Hermit at Ubatuba

Rufous-breasted Hermit – Glaucis hirsuta hirsuta
A single individual was seen perched at the edge of the Corcovado Clearing at Ubatuba on the 14th.

Scale-throated Hermit – Phaethornis eurynome eurynome
We identified 1 and saw several other Hermits almost certainly this species along the Veu de Noiva trail at Serra dos Orgaos on the 27th, 1 along the Bamboo Trail at Serra dos Tucanos on the 1st and 2 along the Theodoro Trail the next day and up to 5 daily on all four dates in Itatiaia NP.


 


Scale Throated Hermits at Serra dos Tucanos



Scale-throated Hermits at Itatiaia Nat. Park.

Planalto Hermit – Phaethornis pretrei
Singles were seen in the patch of forest c.8km east of Carmo on the 29th and at Canastra NP on the 9th and 11th. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as common in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations.

Reddish Hermit – Phaethornis ruber ruber
We saw 1 at Fazenda Angelim at Ubatuba on the 13th and 2 at Corcovado at Ubatuba on the 14th.

Swallow-tailed Hummigbird – Campylopterus macrourus macrourus
We saw 1 at the Itatiaia NP Chocolate Shop feeders on both the 16th and 19th and 1 at the Itatiaia Marsh on the 19th.




Swallowtailed Hummingbirds with Green-headed Tanager in Itatiaia National Park

Black Jacobin – Florisuga fusca
Up to 5 were seen daily on all four dates at Itatiaia NP including an immature at the Hotel Ype feeders.





Black Jacobin in Itatiaia National Park

White-vented Violetear – Colibri serrirostris
We saw 2 at Caraca NP on the 6th, 1 on the 8th, and up to 2 on two dates at Canastra NP. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as common in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations.

Black-breasted Plovercrest – Stephanoxis lalandi lalandi
We saw 2 males at a flowering bush as we walked from the main road to the start of the Bamboo Trail at Serra dos Tucanos on the 1st and 2 along the Theodoro Trail at Serra dos Tucanos on the 2nd and a single male c.2km along the Agulhas Negras road on the 16th. Superb.





 



Black Breasted Plovercrest at Serra dos Tucanos

Frilled Coquette – Lophornis magnificus (Endemic)
We saw 2 females at the Itatiaia NP Chocolate Shop feeders on the 19th.



 


Frilled Coquette in Itatiaia National Park

Festive Coquette – Lophornis chalybeus chalybeus
We saw around 5 including several males at the Fazenda Capricorno feeders on the 14th. Superb.




Male Festive Coquette at Fazenda Capricorno

Glittering-bellied Emerald – Chlorostilbon aureoventris
We saw 3 feeding quite high in flowering trees along a driveway between Teresopolis and Petropolis on the 28th, 2 at Caraca NP on the 5th and 1 at Canastra NP on the 9th. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as fairly common in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations.


Glittering Bellied Emerald in Caraca National Park

Fork-tailed Woodnymph – Thalurania furcata eriphile
JFC saw 1 at Garrafao near Serra de Orgaos NP on the 27th.

Violet-capped Woodnymph – Thalurania glaucopis
We saw up to 5 on two dates attending the Serra dos Tucanos Lodge feeders, 1 at Caraca NP on the 5th, 8 at the Fazenda Caprocorno feeders on the 14th and up to 12 daily on all four dates at Itatiaia NP.




Male Violet Capped Woodnymph at the Serra dos Tucanos Lodge



Violet-capped Woodnymph at the Fazenda Caprocorno feeders.



Violet Woodnymph at Itatiaia Nat. Park

White-throated Hummingbird – Leucochloris albicollis
Seen on seven dates at sites including Serra dos Tucanos, Caraca NP and Itatiaia NP with a daily maximum of 4 recorded on three dates.





White Throated Hummingbird in Itatiaia National Park

White-tailed Goldenthroat – Polytmus guainumbi thaumantias
We saw 2 at Cipo on the 7th and singles at Canastra NP on the 8th and 10th. Silveira (1998) regards this species as hypothetical at Serra da Canastra having only been recorded by only one author, being Forrester (1993).




White Tailed Goldenthroat at Cipo

Versicolored Emerald – Agyrtria versicolor versicolor
Only seen at Itatiaia NP where we saw 4 at the Chocolate Shop feeders on the 16th and 2 there on the 19th and 3 at the Hotel Ype feeders on the 17th.


 


Pair of Versicolored Emeralds at Itatiaia National Park

Glittering-throated Emerald – Polyerata fimbriata tephrocephala
We tentatively identified 2 at the Hotel Ype feeders at Itatiaia NP on the 17th.

Sombre Hummingbird – Campylopterus cirrochloris (Endemic)
We saw up to 4 on a day on four dates at the Serra dos Tucanos Lodge feeders.


 



Sombre Hummingbird at Serra dos Tucanos

Brazilian Ruby – Clytolaema rubricauda (Endemic)
We saw singles at the Serra dos Tucanos Lodge feeders on two dates and at Caraca NP on the 5th and up to 10 daily on four dates at Itatiaia NP.




Male and Female Brazilian Ruby's in Itatiaia National Park.

Hyacinth Visorbearer – Augastes scutatus (Endemic)
We saw 6 along the Cascatona Trail at Caraca NP on the 5th, 2 around the Cipo summit on the 6th and 15 there the following day. TBW (2000) treats this species as Near-threatened stating that the principal threat is now increasing conversion of land for cattle ranching, with its restricted range ensuring that it is vulnerable to any form of disturbance.







 Hyacinth Visorbearer at Caraca National


Horned Sungem – Heliactin bilopha
We saw 2 female-type plumaged birds just below the summit at Cipo on the 7th.





 

Horned Sungem at Cipo

Stripe-breasted Starthroat – Heliomaster squamosus
We saw 2 hunting insects over a small tributary just outside the Canastra NP below the escarpment on the 9th and 2 just inside the Canastra NP below the escarpment on the 11th. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as uncommon in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations.

White-tailed Trogon – Trogon viridis melanopterus
A group of 6 were seen at Fazenda Angelim on the 13th.


White Tailed Trogon at Fazenda Angelim

Black-throated Trogon – Trogon rufus chrysochloros
We saw 1 along the Mozart Cutao Trail in Serra dos Orgaos NP on the 28th, 2 at Serra dos Tucanos on the 1st and 1 at the bridge at the start of the Jeep Trail at Itatiaia NP on the 18th.

Surucua Trogon – Trogon surrucura aurantius
We saw 2 at Serra dos Tucanos on the 1st, 1 at Caraca NP on the 5th, 2 at Itatiaia NP on the 17th and 3
there the following day.




 

 Surucua Trogons at Itatiaia Nat Park.

Ringed Kingfisher – Ceryle torquata
A single individual was seen perched over a river at Semiduro on the 3rd, 3 were seen at Ubatuba on the 14th and 1 was seen on the 15th.

Amazon Kingfisher – Chloroceryle amazona amazona
We saw 2 near the campsite c.3km west of Jose de Barreiro on the 9th.


Amazon Kingfisher near Jose de Barreiro

Rufous-capped Motmot – Baryphthengus ruficapillus
We heard this species daily at Itatiaia NP with birds calling at dawn around the Hotel Donati. However, it took us a considerable effort to see 1, which we finally did in response to tape-playback, along the Tres Picos Trail on the 18th. Superb. HBW (2001) states that this species is not globally threatened.

Three-toed Jacamar – Jacamaralcyon tridactyla (Endemic)
We saw a total of 6 along the Semiduro road (see JvW 2001) on the 29th. TBW (2000) treats this species as Endangered as it ‘has undergone a major decline, such that the remaining population is believed to be very small and fragmented’ with ‘habitat loss and degradation continuing to threaten populations’.







 Three-toed Jacamars along the Semudiro Road

White-eared Puffbird – Nystalus chacuru chacuru
We saw 3 just below the summit at Cipo on the 7th, 2 near Canastra NP on the 8th and 1 at the entrance gate of Canastra NP above Sao Roque de Minas on the 11th. HBW (2002) states that this species is not globally threatened. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as common in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations.



White Eared Puffbird at Cipo.



White Eared Puffbird at Canastra National Park

Crescent-chested Puffbird – Malacoptila striata striata (Endemic)
We saw a superb individual on a couple of occasions along the Campo de Fora Trail at Caraca NP on the 4th and 1 high in a leafless tree at Fazenda Capricorno on the 14th. HBW (2002) states that this species is not globally threatened.






Crescent-Chested Puffbird at Caraca National Park

Black-necked Aracari – Pteroglossus aracari vergens
A single individual was seen in roadside palm trees just east of Carmo on the 29th.

Spot-billed Toucanet – Selenidera maculirostris maculirostris
A single individual was seen perched in the canopy along the Tres Picos Trail at Itatiaia NP on the 18th.

Saffron Toucanet – Baillonius bailloni
We saw a party of 5 along the Veu de Noiva Trail at Serra dos Orgaos NP on the 28th, a party of 6 along the Maromba Trail at Itatiaia NP on the 17th and a total of 8 along the Tres Picos Trail and near Hotel Simon in Itatiaia NP on the 18th. TBW (2000) lists this species as Near-threatened as there is an illegal cage-bird trade, hunting and significant habitat loss.


Saffron Toucanet at Serra dos Orgaos NP.


 



 


Saffron Toucanet at Itatiaia National Park

Red-breasted Toucan – Ramphastos dicolorus
At Canastra NP we saw 3 alongside the Rio Sao Francisco below the escarpment on the 9th and 6 there on the 11th and we saw 2 at the Hotel Fazenda Palmital on the 15th. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as uncommon in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations.




Red Breasted Toucan in Canastra National Park

Toco Toucan – Rampastos toco albogularis
We saw 4 fly across the road between Cipo and Belo Horizonte on the 8th, up to 3 on a day on two dates at Canastra NP and 2 whilst driving from Canastra NP to Ubatuba on the 12th. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as common in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations.


 



Toco Toucan at Canastra Nat. Park.

White-barred Piculet – Picumnus cirratus cirratus
We saw 3 at Semiduro on the 29th, 1 at Serra dos Tucanos on the 30th, 1 at Caraca NP on the 4th and 2 at Itatiaia NP on the 17th and 18th.

Campo Flicker – Colaptes campestris campestris
Seen on seven dates at sites including between Teresopolis and Petropolis, Cipo and Canastra NP with a daily maximum of 6 seen at Canastra on the 11th. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as common in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations.



Campo Flicker in Canastra National Park

Green-barred Woodpecker – Colaptes melanochloros melanochloros
We saw 1 c.8km east of Carmo on the 29th, 1 at the start of the Bamboo Trail at Serra dos Tucanos on the 1st, 1 at Cipo on the 8th and 1 just below Hotel Ype in Itatiaia NP on the 18th.




Green Barred Woodpecker at Carmo

Yellow-browed Woodpecker – Piculus aurulentus
We saw singles at Serra dos Orgaos NP on the 28th, and at Itatiaia NP on the 17th and 18th. TBW (2000) treats this species as Near-threatened as the isolated forests in the north of its range have virtually disappeared owing to the expansion of pastureland and cultivation, and remaining patches are under pressure from clearance and fires spreading out of cultivated areas.


 Blond-crested Woodpecker – Celeus flavescens
A superb male was seen near the monastery at Caraca NP on the 5th.

Lineated Woodpecker – Dryocopus lineatus erythrops
We saw a pair in the foothills between Sao Roque de Minas and the entrance gate on top of the escarpment at Canastra NP on the 8th and 1 just outside Fazenda Angelim at Ubatuba on the 15th. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as fairly common in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations.

Yellow-fronted Woodpecker – Melanerpes flavifrons
Up to 2 daily were seen on three dates at the Ubatuba sites and 4 were seen at Hotel Simon in Mr. Simon’s garden in Itatiaia NP on the 17th.


Yellow Fronted Woodpecker in Itatiaia National Park

White Woodpecker – Melanerpes candidus
We saw up to 5 individuals on three evenings in the foothills between Sao Roque de Minas and the entrance gate on top of the escarpment at Canastra NP where we would watch them go to roost in a hole in a tree. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as common in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations.

White-spotted Woodpecker – Veniliornis spilogaster
We saw 2 along the Agulhas Negras road on the 16th.

Yellow-eared Woodpecker – Veniliornis maculifrons (Endemic)
We saw a pair along the Mozart Catao Trail at Serra dos Orgaos NP on the 28th, 1 along the Semiduro road on the 29th and 2 along the Bamboo Trail at Serra dos Tucanos on the 1st.

Robust Woodpecker – Campephilus robustus
We saw 1 along the Tanque Grande Trail at Caraca NP on the 6th, a pair at Fazenda Angelim on the 15th and 2 along the Maromba Trail at Itatiaia NP on the 17th.

Spotted Bamboowren – Psilorhamphus guttatus
A single individual was tape-lured into view at Fazenda Angelim at Ubatuba on the 13th and a couple were heard on our visit there on the 15th. TBW (2000) treats this species as Near-threatened listing current key threats as urbanisation, industrialisation, agricultural expansion, colonisation and associated road-building.

Slaty Bristlefront – Merulaxis ater (Endemic)
We tape-lured 2 males into view at Fazenda Angelim at Ubatuba on the 13th. Superb. TBW (2000) treats this species as Near-threatened listing current key threats as urbanisation, industrialisation, agricultural
expansion, colonisation and associated road-building.




Slaty Bristlefronts at Ubatuba

Mouse-coloured Tapaculo – Scytalopus speluncae
We heard a single individual along the Mozart Catao Trail at Serra dos Orgaos NP on the 28th but failed to see it.

Brasilia Tapaculo – Scytalopus novacapitalis (Endemic)
JFC saw a single male that responded to tape playback under the power lines at Canastra NP on the 10th. Unfortunately DC only obtained utv’s as it disappeared from view and was not heard to sing again. Another individual was heard nearby but remained unseen. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as common in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations. TBW (2000) treats this species as Near-threatened describing the annual burning of adjacent grasslands limiting the availability and extent of suitable habitat and wetland drainage and the sequestration of water for irrigation schemes further reducing habitat.

Spot-backed Antshrike – Hypoedaleus guttatus leucogaster
We saw 3 at Corcovado at Ubatuba on the 14th. Superb.

Giant Antshrike – Batara cinerea cinerea
Single females were seen along the Veu de Noiva Trail at Serra dos Orgaos NP on the 27th, along the Bamboo Trail at Serra dos Tucanos on the 1st and along the Theodoro Trail at Serra dos Tucanos on the 2nd.



Female Giant Antshrike at Serra dos Tucanos.
     
Sooretama Slaty-Antshrike – Thamnophilus ambiguus
We saw pairs in the vicinity of an Ant swarm along the Bamboo Trail at Serra dos Tucanos on the 1st and at Caraca NP on the 5th.

Variable Antshrike – Thamnophilus caerulescens
Seen on seven dates at sites including Serra dos Tucanos, Caraca NP, Canastra NP and Itatiaia NP with a daily maximum of 6 was seen at Serra dos Tucanos on the 1st. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as fairly common in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations.


Female Variable Ant Shrike at Serra dos Tucanos


Male Variable Ant-Shrike

Spot-breasted Antvireo – Dysithamnus stictothorax
We saw 2 at Serra dos Tucanos on the 30th, and up to 2 daily on three dates at Ubatuba. TBW (2000) treats this species as Near-threatened listing current key threats as urbanisation, industrialisation, agricultural expansion, colonisation and associated road-building.

Plain Antvireo – Dysithamnus mentalis mentalis
Seen on ten dates at sites including Serra dos Orgaos NP, Serra dos Tucanos, Canastra NP, Ubatuba and Itatiaia NP with a daily maximum of 8 seen at Serra dos Tucanos on the 2nd. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as fairly common in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations.

Rufous-backed Antvireo – Dysithamnus xanthopterus (Endemic)
We saw 4 along the Veu de Noiva Trail at Serra dos Orgaos NP on the 27th, 1 at Serra dos Tucanos on the 1st and 2 there on the 2nd and 2 along the Agulhas Negras road on the 16th.

Star-throated Antwren – Myrmotherula gularis (Endemic)
We saw 4 along the Veu de Noiva Trail at Serra dos Orgaos NP on the 27th and 1 there on the 28th, 4 at Serra dos Tucanos on both the 30th and 2nd, 4 at Fazenda Angelim on the 13th and 6 there on the 15th. Superb.



Record shot of a Star-throated Antwren at Serra dos Tucanos.

Salvadori’s Antwren – Myrmotherula minor (Endemic)
A single male was seen forming part of a mixed-species flock at Fazenda Angelim at Ubatuba on the 13th. TBW (2000) treats this species as Vulnerable stating that the fragmentation and continuing habitat loss are so extensive within its range that the inferred rapid population decline qualifies it as Vulnerable.

Unicolored Antwren – Myrmotherula unicolor (Endemic)
We saw 2 at Corcovado at Ubatuba on the 14th and 1 at Fazenda Angelim at Ubatuba on the 15th. TBW (2000) treats this species as Vulnerable because its small population, confined to just a few isolated localities, is inferred to be undergoing a rapid decline owing to continued habitat clearance and fragmentation.

Black-capped Antwren – Herpsilochmus atricapillus
We saw a pair along the Campo de Fora Trail at Caraca NP on the 4th. Superb.

Serra Antwren – Formicivora serrana interposita (Endemic)
A superb pair performed for us in the vicinity of an Ant-swarm at the start of the Tanque Grande Trail at Caraca NP on the 5th. Superb.






Male and Female Serra Antwrens in Caraca National Park.

Ferruginous Antbird – Drymophila ferruginea (Endemic)
We saw singles along the Veu de Noiva Trail at Serra dos Orgaos NP on the 27th and 28th, up to 4 daily on two dates at Ubatuba and up to 2 daily on two dates at Itatiaia NP. Easily located once the call is learnt.


Ferruginous Antbird at Ubatuba

Bertoni’s Antbird – Drymophila rubricollis
We saw 8 along the Tres Picos Trail at Itatiaia NP on the 18th.

Rufous-tailed Antbird – Drymophila genei (Endemic)
We saw 4 along the Agulhas Negras road on the 16th and 1 along the Tres Picos Trail at Itatiaia NP on the 18th. TBW (2000) treats this species as Near-threatened stating that it has been recorded at eight sites, most of which are isolated patches of habitat and there has been some clearance for pasture and cultivation especially in the north of its range.




Rufous Tailed Antbird along the Agulhas Negras Road

Ochre-rumped Antbird – Drymophila ochropyga (Endemic)
We saw 1 along the Campo de For a Trail at Caraca NP on the 4th and 4 along the Cascatona Trail at Caraca NP on the 5th. TBW (2000) treats this species as Near-threatened listing the current key threats as urbanisation, industrialisation, agricultural expansion, colonisation and associated road-building.

Dusky-tailed Antbird – Drymophila malura
We tape-lured a pair into view along the Cascatona Trail at Caraca NP on the 5th.

Scaled Antbird – Drymophila squamata (Endemic)
Only seen at sites around Ubatuba with 4 seen at Fazenda Angelim on both the 13th and 15th and 2 at Corcovado on the 14th. Superb.




Scaled Antbird at Ubatuba.
All Antwrens and Antbirds, from my experience, are very difficult to
photograph as they are usually very active keeping to dark forests
and other very shady areas with plenty of low vegetation to hide.

Streak-capped Antwren – Terenura maculata
We saw singles at Corcovado on the 14th and at Fazenda Angelim on the 15th and 2 along the Tres Picos Trail on the 18th.

White-shouldered Fire-eye – Pyriglena leucoptera
Seen on eight dates at sites including the Bamboo Trail at Serra dos Tucanos, Caraca NP, Fazenda Angelim, Corcovado and Itatiaia NP with a daily maximum of 6 seen at Fazenda Angelim on the 13th. Often seen attending Ant-swarms.


Male White Shouldered Fire-eye

White-bibbed Antbird – Myrmeciza loricata (Endemic)
Single males were seen along the Campo de For a Trail at Caraca NP on the 4th and along the Represa da Piscina Trail at the Hotel Donati on the 19th. Superb.

Rufous-tailed (Brazilian) Antthrush – Chamaeza ruficauda (Endemic)
We tape-lured 2 vocalising individuals into view along the first 2km of the Agulhas Negras road on the 16th with the second individual then performing particularly well for us. Superb.




Rufous Tailed Antthrush along the Agulhas Negras Road

Cryptic (Such’s) Antthrush - Chamaeza meruloides (Endemic)
We tape-lured a vocalising individual into view along the Cachoeira Igumieira Trail near the Hotel Donati in Itatiaia NP on the 17th. Superb.

Antthrush sp. – Chamaeza sp.
DC obtained brief views of a silent bird along the Tres Picos Trail at Itatiaia NP on the 18th.

Rufous-capped Antthrush – Formicarius colma ruficeps
A superb individual was seen on the trail ahead of us near the start of the Water Pipe Trail at Serra dos Tucanos Lodge on the 30th.

Variegated (Imperial) Antpitta – Grallaria varia imperator
After the disappointment of obtaining utv’s in response to tape playback of a vocalising individual at Fazenda Angelim we were elated to obtain brilliant views of a superb individual in response to tape playback along the Represa da Piscina Trail at the Hotel Donati in Itatiaia NP on unbelievably our last morning of the 19th. Superb.

Black-cheeked Gnateater – Conopophaga melanops melanops (Endemic)
DC obtained brief views of a single individual in the forest patch 8km east of Carmo on the 29th and we obtained excellent views of 2 along the Circuit Trail at the Serra dos Tucanos Lodge on the 30th. Superb.




Black Cheeked Gnateater at Serra dos Tucanos

Rufous Gnateater – Conopophaga lineata vulgaris
Seen on six dates at sites including Garrafao, Serra dos Orgaos NP, Serra dos Tucanos, Caraca NP and Itatiaia NP with a daily maximum of 3 seen along the Bamboo Trail at Serra dos Tucanos on the 1st.




Rufous Gnateater at Garrafao

Campo Miner – Geobates poecilopterus
A single individual was seen well on the track leading to Fazenda das Pedras in Canastra NP on the 10th. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as rare in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations. TBW (2000) treats this species as Near-threatened as there has been extensive conversion of cerrado habitats to mechanised agriculture, cattle ranching and plantations of non-native tree species with two thirds of cerrado habitats moderately or extensively altered by 1993, with most destruction having occurred since 1950.

Rufous Hornero – Furnarius rufus albogularis
Seen on eight dates at sites including Semiduro, Caraca NP, Cipo, Canastra NP and Ubatuba with a daily maximum of 15 seen at Semiduro on the 29th. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as common in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations.

Tail-banded Hornero – Furnarius figulus figulus (Endemic)
We saw 2 at Semiduro on the 29th.



Tail Banded Hornero at Semiduro

Araucaria Tit-Spinetail – Leptasthenura setaria
We saw a pair in the Araucaria trees at the small farm in a clearing to the left 2-3km along the Agulhas Negras road on the 15th and another pair in the Araucaria trees just beyond the pool c.8km along the Agulhas Negras road on the 16th. TBW (2000) treats this species as Near-threatened stating that unsurprisingly it is threatened by the destruction of Araucaria forest as a result of clearance for pastureland and cultivation.



 


 

Araucaria Tit-Spinetail along the Agulhas Negras Road

Itatiaia Thistletail – Oreophylax moreirae (Endemic)
We heard 1 at the pool c.8km along the Agulhas Negras road on the 15th and saw 3 in the vicinity of the pool the following day.



 


Itatiaia Thistletail along the Agulhas Negras Road

Rufous-capped Spinetail – Synallaxis ruficapilla
Seen on six dates at sites including Serra dos Orgaos NP, Serra dos Tucanos, Caraca NP and Itatiaia NP with a daily maximum of 2 seen on three dates.

Pale-breasted Spinetail – Synallaxis albescens albescens
A single individual was seen at Cipo on the 7th.

Yellow-chinned Spinetail – Certhiaxis cinnamomea russeola
A single individual was seen at the Itatiaia Marsh on the 19th.

Pallid Spinetail – Cranioleuca pallida (Endemic)
We saw 2 along the Bamboo Trail at Serra dos Tucanos on the 1st, 1 at Caraca NP on the 6th, 2 along the Agulhas Negras road on the 16th and 2 in Itatiaia NP on the 17th.

Common (Rufous-fronted) Thornbird – Phacellodomus rufifrons rufifrons
We saw 2 in the foothills between Sao Roque de Minas and the entrance gate of Canastra NP on top of the escarpment (see Forrester (1993)) during the evening of the 8th. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as common in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations.

Firewood-Gatherer – Anumbius annumbi
We saw 2 at Cipo on the 6th and 4 there the next day and 1 near Canastra NP on the 11th. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as common in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations.

White-collared Foliage-gleaner – Anabazenops fuscus (Endemic)
We saw 1 along the Bamboo Trail at Serra dos Tucanos on the 1st, 1 at Fazenda Angelim on the 13th, 1 in Itatiaia NP on the 17th and 3 there the following day.

Buff-browed Foliage-gleaner – Syndactyla rufosuperciliata rufosuperciliata
We saw 2 along the San Pedro Trail at Serra dos Orgaos NP on the 28th, 1 along the Bamboo Trail at Serra dos Tucanos on the 1st, 2 at Caraca NP on the 5th and 2 at Itatiaia NP on the 18th.

White-browed Foliage-gleaner – Anabacerthia amaurotis
We saw 1 along the San Pedro Trail at Serra dos Orgaos NP on the 27th and 4 there on the 28th, 1 at Serra dos Tucanos on the 1st and 2 there on the 2nd. TBW (2000) treats this species as Near-threatened listing current key threats as urbanisation, industrialisation, agricultural expansion, colonisation and associated road-building.

Black-capped Foliage-gleaner – Philydor atricapillus
We saw 2 at Fazenda Agelim on the 13th.

Ochre-breasted Foliage-gleaner – Philydor lichtensteini
We saw 3 along the Circuit Trail at Serra dos Tucanos on the 2nd.


Record shot of Ochre-breasted Foliage-Gleaner at Serra dos Tucanos.

Buff-fronted Foliage-gleaner – Philydor rufus rufus
We saw 1 at Serra dos Tucanos on the 2nd and 5 there on the 2nd, 1 at Caraca NP on the 5th, 1 at Fazenda Angelim on the 13th and 2 at Itatiaia NP on the 17th.

White-eyed Foliage-gleaner – Automolus leucophthalmus leucophthalmus
DC saw 1 at Caraca NP on the 5th and we saw singles near Ubatuba on both the 14th and 15th.

Pale-browed Treehunter – Cichlocolptes leucophrus (Endemic)
We saw 1 along the San Pedro Trail at Serra dos Orgaos NP on the 27th and 2 there on the 28th.

Sharp-billed Treehunter (Xenops) – Heliobletus contaminatus
We saw 2 along the San Pedro Trail at Serra dos Orgaos NP on the 28th, 6 at Serra dos Tucanos on the 1st and 1 there the following day.

Plain Xenops – Xenops minutus minutus
We saw 3 along the San Pedro Trail at Serra dos Orgaos NP on the 28th, 1 at Serra dos Tucanos on the 30th and 1 on the 15th.

Streaked Xenops – Xenops rutilans rutilans
We saw singles on five dates at sites including Serra dos Tucanos, Caraca NP, Canastra NP and Ubatuba. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as uncommon in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations.

Rufous-breasted Leaftosser – Sclerurus scansor
A superb individual was seen along the Maromba Trail linking Hotel Donati and Hotel Simon not far from the edge of the Hotel Donati clearing early in the morning on the 18th.

Tawny-throated Leaftosser – Sclerurus mexicanus bahiae
A pair were seen along the Bamboo Trail at Serra dos Tucanos on the 1st and 2 were seen along the Theodoro Trail at Serra dos Tucanos the following day. Superb.

Sharp-tailed Streamcreeper – Lochmias nematura nematura
A male was seen near the dam at the car park at the start of the San Pedro Trail at Serra dos Orgaos NP on the 27th, a pair were seen in a stream along the road from Teresopolis to Petropolis on the 28th and singles were seen at Caraca NP on the 5th and at Canastra NP on the 9th. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as common in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations.




Sharp Tailed Streamcreeper at Serra dos Orgaos

Thrush-like (Plain-winged) Woodcreeper – Dendrocincla turdina
We saw 4 attending an Ant-swarm at Corcorvado on the 14th.




Thrush-like (Plain Winged) Woodcreeper at Corcorvado

Olivaceous Woodcreeper – Sittasomus griseicapillus sylviellus
Seen on ten dates at sites including Serra dos Orgaos NP, Serra dos Tucanos, Caraca NP, Canastra NP and Itatiaia NP with a daily maximum of 8 seen at Serra dos Tucanos on the 1st. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as common in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations.

White-throated Woodcreeper – Xipocolaptes albicollis albicollis
We saw 2 along the San Pedro Trail at Serra dos Orgaos NP on the 28th, 2 along the Bamboo Trail at Serra dos Tucanos on the 1st and 5 along the Theodoro Trail the following day, and 1 in Itatiaia NP on the 17th.

Planalto Woodcreeper – Dendrocolaptes platyrostris
We saw 2 in Itatiaia NP on both the 17th and 18th.


Planalto Woodcreeper in Itatiaia National Park

Scaled Woodcreeper – Lepidocolaptes squamatus squamatus
Seen on seven dates at sites including Serra dos Orgaos NP, Canastra NP, Fazenda Angelim and Itatiaia NP with a daily maximum of 4 seen at Serra dos Orgaos NP on the 27th. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as uncommon in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations.

Lesser Woodcreeper – Lepidocolaptes fuscus fuscus
We saw 1 at Serra dos Orgaos NP on the 27th, 1 at Serra dos Tucanos on the 30th and 2 there on the 2nd.

Black-billed Scythebill – Campylorhamphus falcularius
We saw 2 along the San Pedro Trail at Serra dos Orgaos NP on the 28th and 1 along the Bamboo Trail at Serra dos Tucanos on the 1st. Superb.

Planalto Tyrannulet – Phyllomyias fasciatus brevirostris
We tentatively identified 1 near the bottom of the Casca D’Anta Waterfall at Canastra NP on the 11th. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as uncommon in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations.

Grey-capped Tyrannulet – Phyllomyias griseocapilla (Endemic)
We saw 2 along the Circuit Trail at Serra dos Tucanos on the 30th. TBW (2000) treats this species as Near-threatened as agricultural conversion and deforestation for mining and plantation production historically threaten its lowland forests.

Southern Beardless Tyrannulet – Camptostoma obsoletum obsoletum
Seen on seven dates at sites including between Teresopolis and Petropolis, Serra dos Tucanos, Cipo and the Agulhas Road with a daily maximum of 2 seen on two dates.

Yellow-bellied Elaenia – Elaenia flavogaster flavogaster
We saw 2 in the ravine under the power lines at Canastra NP on the 10th. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as common in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations.

Plain-crested Elaenia – Elaenia cristata cristata
We saw an estimated 30 at Cipo on the 7th and 1 at Canastra NP on the 11th. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as fairly common in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations.

Highland Elaenia – Elaenia obscura sordida
We saw 3 at Caraca NP on the 6th.


Highland Elaenia in the Caraca Nat. Park.

Sooty Tyrannulet – Serpophaga nigricans
We saw pairs along the rivers at Canastra NP on both the 9th and 10th. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as common in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations.

Sharp-tailed Grass-Tyrant – Culicivora caudacuta
We saw a total of 17 on top of the escarpment at Canastra NP on the 10th. Superb. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as fairly common in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations. TBW (2000) treats this species as Near-threatened as habitat conversion to soybeans, exportable crops and Eucalyptus plantations has severely impacted campo cerrado habitats.



Sharp-tailed Grass-Tyrant on top of the escarpment at Canastra.

Grey-backed Tachuri – Polystictus superciliaris (Endemic)
We saw a total of 8 around the Cipo summit on the 7th and 1 on top of the escarpment at Canastra NP on the 10th. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as uncommon in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations. TBW (2000) treats this species as Near-threatened.




 



Grey Backed Tachuri at Cipo

Grey-hooded Flycatcher – Mionectes rufiventris
We saw 1 at Serra dos Tucanos on the 30th, up to 2 daily on three dates at Caraca NP and 1 on the 15th.

Sepia-capped Flycatcher – Leptopogon amaurocephalus amaurocephalus
Seen on ten dates at sites including Serra dos Orgaos where the daily maximum of 6 were seen on the 28th, Serra dos Tucanos, Caraca NP, Ubatuba and Itatiaia NP.




Sepia Capped Flycatcher at Serra dos Orgaos Nat. Pk.

Mottle-cheeked Tyrannulet – Phylloscartes ventralis ventralis
Identified on five dates at sites including the Bamboo Trail at Serra dos Tucanos, Caraca NP where the daily maximum of 4 were seen on the 5th, Ubatuba and Itatiaia NP.

Serra do Mar Tyrannulet – Phylloscartes difficilis (Endemic)
We tentatively identified 2 at Fazenda Angelim on the 13th. TBW (2000) treats this species as Near-threatened as the isolated forest patches in the north of its range have virtually disappeared owing to the expansion of pasture and cultivation.

Yellow Tyrannulet – Capsiempis flaveola flaveola
We saw 2 at Corcorvado on the 14th and 1 at Itatiaia NP on the 18th.

Eared Pygmy-Tyrant – Myiornis auricularis
We saw 4 along the Theodoro Trail at Serra dos Tucanos on the 2nd, 2 at Caraca NP on the 5th, 2 at Itatiaia NP on the 17th and 1 there the following day.



Eared Pygmy-Tyrant at Caraca National Park

Drab-breasted Bamboo-Tyrant – Hemitriccus diops
We saw up to 2 daily on two dates at Caraca NP, 3 along the lower part of the Tres Picos Trail at Itatiaia NP on the 18th and JFC saw 1 along the Represa da Piscina Trail at the Hotel Donati in Itatiaia NP on the 19th.


Drab Breasted Bamboo Tyrant in Itatiaia National Park

Brown-breasted Bamboo-Tyrant – Hemitriccus obsoletus obsoletus (Endemic)
We saw 3 along the first couple of km’s of the Agulhas Negras road on the 16th and 1 quite high along the Tres Picos Trail at Itatiaia NP on the 18th. The audible whir of its wings was always noticeable.

Hangnest Tody-Tyrant – Hemitriccus nidipendulus paulistus (Endemic)
We saw up to 2 daily on three dates at Caraca NP.

Yellow-lored Tody-Flycatcher – Todirostrum poliocephalum (Endemic)
Seen on seven dates at sites including Semiduro, Serra dos Tucanos, Caraca NP and around Ubatuba where a daily maximum of 2 was recorded on two dates.




Record shots of a Yellow-lored Tody-Flycatcher near Semiduro

Ochre-faced Tody-Flycatcher – Todirostrum plumbeiceps
A single individual was seen at Serra dos Tucanos on the 1st.

Large-headed Flatbill – Ramphotrigon megacephala megacephala
We saw 1 at Itatiaia NP on the 17th and 4 there the following day.


Large Headed Flatbill in Itatiaia National Park

Yellow-olive Flycatcher – Tolmomyias sulphurescens
We saw a single individual at Serra dos Tucanos on the 2nd.

White-throated Spadebill – Platyrinchus mystaceus mystaceus
Seen on seven dates at sites including Serra dos Orgaos, Semiduro, Serra dos Tucanos where a daily maximum of 3 were seen on the 2nd, Caraca NP and Canastra NP. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as common in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations.




White Throated Spadebill at Serra dos Tucanos.

Yellow-rumped Flycatcher – Myiobius mastacalis (Endemic)
Up to 2 were seen daily on three dates whilst at Ubatuba.

Black-tailed Flycatcher – Myiobius atricaudus ridgwayi
We saw 1 along the Bamboo Trail at Serra dos Tucanos on the 1st, 2 at Caraca NP on the 5th and JFC saw 1 at Itatiaia NP on the 17th.

Bran-coloured Flycatcher – Myiophobus fasciatus flammiceps
DC saw 1 at Caraca NP on the 5th and we saw up to 2 on two dates at Ubatuba.



Bran Coloured Flycatcher at Ubatuba

Tropical Pewee – Contopus cinereus cinereus
We saw 1 in the garden at Serra dos Tucanos Lodge on the 30th, 2 at Ubatuba on the 14th and singles on two dates in Itatiaia NP.

Grey Monjita – Xolmis cinerea cinerea
We saw up to 2 daily on three dates whilst at Canastra NP with 1 seemingly always perched on the aerials opposite Pousada Barcelos in Sao Roque de Minas. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as common in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations.

White-rumped Monjita – Xolmis velata
We saw up to 6 daily around the Cipo Summit and up to 50 daily at Canastra NP where they proved very common on top of the escarpment. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as common in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations.



White-rumped Monjita at Cipo
Crested Black-Tyrant – Knipolegus lophotes
Seen on eleven dates at sites including the road between Teresopolis and Petropolis, Cipo, Canastra NP where the daily maximum of 6 were seen on the 10th, and the Agulhas Negras road. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as common in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations.

Velvety Black-Tyrant – Knipolegus nigerrimus (Endemic)
We saw up to 6 daily on three dates at Caraca NP, 2 at Canastra NP on the 9th and 5 along the Agulhas Negras road on the 16th. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as fairly common in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations.



Male Velvety Black Tyrant in the Caraca Nat. Park.

Blue-billed Black-Tyrant – Knipolegus cyanirostris
We saw 4 near the start of the Theodoro Trail at Serra dos Tucanos on the 2nd and up to 3 daily on three dates at Itatiaia NP.

Male Blue Billed Black-Tyrant at Serra dos Tucanos.

Masked Water-Tyrant – Fluvicola nengeta nengeta
Seen on six dates at sites including Carmo, Caraca NP, Canastra NP where the daily maximum of 5 were seen on the 11th, and Ubatuba. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as common in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations.



Masked Water-Tyrant at Carmo
Long-tailed Tyrant – Colonia colonus colonus
Seen on six dates at sites including Caraca NP, Canastra NP, Ubatuba where the daily maximum of 5 were seen on the 14th, and Itatiaia NP. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as common in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations.

Streamer-tailed Tyrant – Gubernetes yetapa
Seen on six dates at sites including Semiduro, near Santa Barbara, Canastra NP where the daily maximum of 4 were seen on the 9th, and Itatiaia Marsh. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as common in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations.







Streamer Tailed Tyrant at Semiduro

Yellow-browed Tyrant – Satrapa icterophrys
We saw a single individual just outside Fazenda Angelim on the 13th.

Cliff Flycatcher – Hirundinea ferruginea bellicosa
Seen on eight dates in ones and twos at sites including Serra dos Tucanos, Canastra NP, Ubatuba and the Hotel Simon in Itatiaia NP. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as fairly common in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations.

Cattle Tyrant – Machetornis rixosus rixosus
We saw 2in Cipo Village on the 8th, 4 near Canastra NP on the 9th, 1 on the 15th and 1 on the drive to Rio de Janeiro on the 19th. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as common in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations.


Cattle Tyrant in Cipo Village.

Shear-tailed Grey-Tyrant – Muscipipra vetula
After much searching we finally found a pair just above the pool c.8km along the Agulhas Negras road on the 16th. Superb.




Shear-tailed Grey Tyrant along the Agulhas Negras Road

Grey-hooded Attila – Attila rufus rufus (Endemic)
We saw singles at the Ubatuba sites on three dates and at Itatiaia NP on the 18th.

Sirystes – Sirystes sibilator sibilator
We saw a single individual below the Casca D’Anta Waterfall at Canastra NP on the 9th. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as uncommon in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations.

Short-crested Flycatcher – Myiarchus ferox australis
We tentatively identified a single individual at Caraca NP on the 6th.

Great Kiskadee – Pitangus sulphuratus
Seen on fifteen dates at sites including Serra dos Tucanos, Caraca NP, Cipo, Canastra NP, Ubatuba where the daily maximum of 4 were seen on the 13th and Itatiaia NP. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as common in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations.

Boat-billed Flycatcher – Megarynchus pitangua
Identified on five dates but probably widely overlooked. We saw 8 around the Lodge at Serra dos Tucanos on the 30th, 2 at Caraca NP on the 5th and up to 2 daily on three dates at the Ubatuba sites.

Social Flycatcher – Myiozetetes similis pallidiventris
Seen on ten dates at sites including Serra dos Tucanos, Caraca NP, Canastra NP, Ubatuba where the daily maximum of 4 were seen on the 14th and Itatiaia NP. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as common in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations.

Tropical Kingbird – Tyrannus melancholicus melancholicus
We saw 3 at Semiduro on the 29th, up to 6 daily on three dates at Canastra NP and 2 at Itatiaia Marsh on the 19th. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as common in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations.

Chestnut-crowned Becard – Pachyramphus castaneus castaneus
We saw 1 at Serra dos Orgaos on the 27th, up to 3 daily on two dates at Serra dos Tucanos and singles on two dates at Itatiaia NP.

Black-capped Becard – Pachyramphus marginatus marginatus
We saw a single male at the edge of the Corcorvado Clearing on the 14th.

Crested Becard – Pachyramphus validus validus
We saw 2 at the Lodge at Serra dos Tucanos on the 30th.

Helmeted Manakin – Antilophia galeata
We saw a single male whilst walking through the forest to the base of the Casca D’Anta Waterfall on the 9th and 4 males along the same stretch on the 11th. Superb. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as common in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations.


 


 

Helmeted Manakin at Canastra National Park

Blue (Swallow-tailed) Manakin – Chiroxiphia caudate
Seen on eleven dates at sites including Garrafao, Serra dos Orgaos, Serra dos Tucanos where the daily maximum of 6 were seen on the 30th, Caraca NP, Fazenda Angelim and Itatiaia NP.




Male Blue Manakin at Serra dos Orgaos Nat.PK.

Pin-tailed Manakin – Ilicura militaris (Endemic)
DC saw a male along the San Pedro Trail at Serra dos Orgaos NP on the 27th, we saw a female along the Theodoro Trail at Serra dos Tucanos on the 2nd, 2 males along the Cascatona Trail at Caraca NP on the 5th, 2 females whilst walking through the forest to the base of the Casca D’Anta Waterfall on both the 9th and 11th. Superb. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as uncommon in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations.

White-bearded Manakin – Manacus manacus gutturosus
We saw 3 including a lekking male whilst walking through the forest to the base of the Casca D’Anta Waterfall on the 9th, an up to 4 on two dates in the Ubatuba areas. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as uncommon in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations.

Greenish Schiffornis – Schiffornis virescens
We saw a single individual along the Ponte Dobode Trail at Caraca NP on the 4th.

Swallow-tailed Cotinga – Phibalura flavirostris flavirostris
Our most wanted, but not really expected, species of the trip. Whilst trying to locate a flyover male Red-ruffed Fruitcrow along the Tanque Grande Trail at Caraca NP on the 4th we could hardly believe our eyes when we found a flock of 10 of these superb Cotingas in the canopy of the fruiting tree that the Fruitcrow had flown into. We then saw another 2 whilst walking along the road back to the Monastery that evening. The following day we saw 5 along the Cascatona Trail and 8 in the fruiting tree along the Tanque Grande Trail. Without doubt the highlight of the trip. Superb. TBW (2000) treats this species as Near-threatened stating it has apparently declined for reasons that are unclear suugesting extensive deforestation within its range have presumably had some impact.


 

Poor Picture of a Swallow Tailed Continga, 
high in a tree at Caraca National Park
                                         
Black-and-gold Cotinga – Tijuca atra (Endemic)
We saw a singing male and heard others along the San Pedro Trail at Serra dos Orgaos NP on the 27th and heard them again there the following day, we heard birds singing along the upper part of the Bamboo Trail at Serra dos Tucanos on the 1st and heard birds singing along the Agulhas Negras road on the 15th and saw 4 lekking birds there the following day. TBW (2000) treats this species as Near-threatened largely due to its highly restricted range.



 

Male Black & Gold Continga

Hooded Berryeater – Carpornis cucullatus (Endemic)
We saw 2 males along the San Pedro Trail at Serra dos Orgaos NP on the 27th and heard birds calling there the following day and saw 3 along the upper part of the Bamboo Trail at Serra dos Tucanos on the 1st. TBW (2000) treats this species as Near-threatened listing the current threats as urbanisation, industrialisation, agricultural expansion, colonisation and associated road-building.





Hooded Berryeater at Serra dos Orgaos

Cinnamon-vented Piha – Lipaugus lanioides (Endemic)
We saw a single individual along the Tanque Grande Trail at Caraca NP on the 6th. TBW (2000) treats this species as Vulnerable because it has a small and fragmented population and range that is undergoing a continuing rapid decline owing to the extensive loss of Atlantic forest.

Red-ruffed Fruitcrow – Pyroderus scutatus scutatus
JFC saw a male fly across the Tanque Grande Trail at Caraca NP on the 4th, we briefly saw a bird fly over us at Fazenda Angelim on the 13th and were finally rewarded with prolonged views of a booming male in the early morning in pines near the small chapel in the grounds of the Hotel Donati in Itatiaia NP on the 18th.

Bare-throated Bellbird – Procnias nudicollis
We heard a calling male along the San Pedro Trail at Serra dos Orgaos on the 28th, heard a male along the Bamboo Trail at Serra dos Tucanos on the 1st, saw a calling male atop a tree along the Theodoro Trail on the 2nd, saw 3 at Fazenda Angelim on the 13th and heard them there on the 15th. Impressive. TBW (2000) treats this species as Near-threatened stating that it has unquestionably declined owing to deforestation and heavy trapping pressure for the cage-bird trade, particularly in Brazil.

Black-capped Piprites (Manakin) – Piprites pileatus
We tape-lured a superb male into view along the first kilometre of the Agulhas Negras road on the 16th. TBW (2000) treats this species as Vulnerable because the extent of forest loss indicates that its apparently small population is declining and if it is an altitudinal migrant, the decline could be highly significant.

Sharpbill – Oxyruncus cristatus cristatus
We saw singles along the San Pedro Trail at Serra dos Orgaos NP on the 27th and in the clearing at Fazenda Angelim on the 13th.

White-rumped Swallow – Tachycineta leucorrhoa
Only seen at Cipo where we saw 2 on the 7th and 4 on the 8th.

Brown-chested Martin – Phaeoprogne tapera fusca
We saw 1 at Semiduro on the 29th and 2 there on the 3rd.

Grey-breasted Martin – Progne chalybea
We saw 10 at Rio de Janeiro Airport on the 26th, 6 at Ubatuba on the 13th and 2 there on the 15th and 4 at Itatiaia NP on the 18th.

Blue-and-white Swallow – Pygochelidon cyanoleuca cyanoleuca
Seen on eighteen dates at sites including Teresopolis where the daily maximum of 50 was recorded on the 27th, Serra dos Tucanos, Cipo, Canastra NP, Ubatuba and Itatiaia NP. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as common in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations.

Southern Rough-winged Swallow – Stelgidopteryx ruficollis ruficollis
Seen on fourteen dates at sites including Semiduro, Serra dos Tucanos, Cipo, Canastra NP, Ubatuba where the daily maximum of 30 was recorded on the 14th and Itatiaia NP. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as common in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations.

Curl-crested Jay – Cyanocorax cristatellus
We saw a party of 7 at the top of the Casca D’anta Waterfall at Canastra NP on the 10th and 2 along the road leading below the escarpment the following morning. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as common in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations.

Plush-crested Jay – Cyanocorax chrysops chrysops
A party of 9 crossed the track leading through the foothills between Sao Roque de Minas and the entrance gate of Canastra NP on top of the escarpment (see Forrester (1993)) during the evening of the 8th. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as uncommon in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations.

Black-capped Donacobius – Donacobius atricapillus atricapillus
A pair were seen at a marshy area along the road leading below the escarpment at Canastra NP on the 9th and a pair were seen at the lake next to the road at the campsite 3km west of Jose de Barreiro (see Forrester (1993)) on the 11th. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as common in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations.

Long-billed Wren – Thryothorus longirostris longirostris (Endemic)
We saw two pairs in the clearing at Corcorvado on the 14th. Superb.


 

Long-billed Wren at Corcorvado

House Wren – Troglodytes aedon musculus
Seen on eleven dates at sites including Serra dos Orgaos NP, Serra dos Tucanos, Cipo where the daily maximum of 6 were seen on the 7th, Canastra NP, Ubatuba and Itatiaia NP. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as common in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations.

Yellow-legged Thrush – Platycichla flavipes flavipes
We saw 4 at Fazenda Angelim, Ubatuba on the 13th and 2 at Itataia NP on both the 17th and 18th.






Yellow Legged Thrush at Ubatuba

Eastern Slaty Thrush – Turdus subalaris
A single individual was watched feeding in the canopy along the Tanque Grande Trail at Caraca NP on the 4th.

Rufous-bellied Thrush – Turdus rufiventris rufiventris
Seen on nineteen dates at sites including Serra dos Orgaos NP, Serra dos Tucanos, Caraca NP, Canastra NP, Ubatuba and Itatiaia NP where the daily maximum of 12 were seen on the 16th. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as common in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations

.
Rufous Bellied Thrush at Caraca National Park

Pale-breasted Thrush – Turdus leucomelas leucomelas
Seen on ten dates with up to 4 seen on a day at sites including Serra dos Tucanos, Serra dos Tucanos, Caraca NP, Canastra NP, Ubatuba and Itatiaia NP. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as common in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations.



Pale Breasted Thrush in Itatiaia National Park

Creamy-bellied Thrush – Turdus amaurochalinus
We saw 6 at Semiduro on the 29th, singles on two dates at Caraca NP, 1 at Fazenda Angelim, Ubatuba on the 13th and 4 there on the 15th.

Cocoa Thrush – Turdus fumigatus fumigatus
We saw a single individual at Fazenda Angelim, Ubatuba on the 13th.

White-necked Thrush – Turdus albicollis albicollis
We saw 2 at Serra dos Orgaos NP on the 27th and 1 there the following day, singles at Caraca NP on the 5th and 6th and 3 at Fazenda Angelim, Ubatuba on the 13th and 2 there on the 15th.




White Necked Thrush at Serra dos Orgaos

Chalk-browed Mockingbird – Mimus saturninus modulator
Seen on twelve dates at sites including Rio de Janeiro Airport, Semiduro, Caraca NP, Cipo and Canastra NP where the daily maximum of 8 were seen on the 9th. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as common in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations.


Chalk Browed Mockingbird at Canastra Nat. Pk.

Hellmayr’s Pipit – Anthus hellmayri brasilianus
We tentatively identified 3 on top of the escarpment at Canastra NP on the 10th. This species is not listed by Silveira (1998) from Serra da Canastra NP or adjacent areas based on the author’s observations but he does refer to others’ records and it is included by Forrester (1993).

Rufous-browed Peppershrike – Cyclarhis gujanensis
Seen on nine dates at sites including between Teresopolis and Petropolis where the daily maximum of 3 were seen on the 28th, Serra dos Tucanos, Caraca NP, Agulhas Negras road and Itatiaia NP.

Rufous-crowned Greenlet – Hylophilus poicilotis
We saw 10 along the Bamboo Trail at Serra dos Tucanos on the 1st, 1 along the Theodoro Trail on the 2nd, 1 at Caraca NP on the 5th and 4 along the Agulhas Negras road on the 16th.

Lemon-chested Greenlet – Hylophilus thoracicus thoracicus
We saw 2 in streamside bushes at Corcovado on the 14th.

Tropical Parula – Parula pitiayumi pitiayumi
We saw 2 in the clearing at Corcovado on the 14th.



Tropical Parula at Corcovado

Masked Yellowthroat – Geothlypis aequinoctialis velata
We saw a male in the acacia scrub area between Cipo village and the summit on the 7th and a pair at Corcovado on the 14th.

Golden-crowned Warbler – Basileuterus culicivorus azarae
Up to 6 were seen daily on eight dates at sites including Serra dos Orgaos NP, Serra dos Tucanos, Corcovado and Itatiaia NP.

White-bellied Warbler – Basileuterus hypoleucus
Up to 6 were seen daily on three dates at Caraca NP, 2 were seen below the Casca D’Anta Waterfall at Canastra NP on the 9th and 5 were seen there on the 11th.


White-bellied Warbler at the Caraca National Park.

White-rimmed Warbler – Basileuterus leucoblepharus
We saw 1 at Serra dos Orgaos NP on the 27th and 4 there the following day, 2 along the Bamboo Trail at Serra dos Tucanos on the 1st, 2 at Caraca NP on the 4th and 1 there the following day and 2 along the Agulhas Negras road on the 16th.





White Rimmed Warbler at Caraca National Park

Neotropical River Warbler – Basileuterus rivularis rivularis
Singles were seen at Fazenda Angelim on the 13th and at Corcovado on the 14th.

Bananaquit – Coereba flaveola
Seen on eleven dates at sites including Serra dos Orgaos NP, Serra dos Tucanos, Caraca NP, Ubatuba and Itatiaia NP where a daily maximum of 6 were seen on the 17th.

Brown Tanager – Orchesticus abeillei (Endemic)
A single individual accompanied a mixed species flock encountered along the Mozart Cutao Trail in Serra dos Orgaos NP on the 28th. TBW (2000) treats this species as Near-threatened as isolated forest patches in the north of its range have virtually disappeared owing to the expansion of pasture and cultivation, and those remaining are under pressure from clearance and fires spreading from cultivated areas.

Cinnamon Tanager – Schistochlamys ruficapillus ruficapillus (Endemic)
Seen on seven dates at sites including between Teresopolis and Petropolis, the top of the ridge above Serra dos Tucanos, Cipo and Canastra NP where the daily maximum of 6 was seen on the 10th. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as fairly common in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations.


A distant Cinnamon Tanager at the Canastra Nat. Park.

White-rumped Tanager – Cypsnagra hirundinacea
A pair were seen at the Cipo summit on the 7th. Superb.


A distant White Rumped Tanager at Cipo
Magpie Tanager – Cissopis leveriana major
We saw 3 near the monastery at Caraca NP on both the 4th and 6th and up to 6 on three dates at Itatiaia NP.




 Magpie Tanager in Itatiaia National Park

Rufous-headed Tanager – Hemithraupis ruficapilla ruficapilla (Endemic)
We saw 1 at Caraca NP on the 4th, 2 at Corcovado on the 14th and 2 on two dates in Itatiaia NP.

Hooded Tanager – Nemosia pileata caerulea
We saw a single individual in a remnant patch of forest at Carmo on the 29th.

Olive-green Tanager – Orthogonys chloricterus (Endemic)
We saw 20 at Itatiaia NP on the 17th, 1 on the 18th and 2 on the 19th. They proved common at Hotel Ype.

Flame-crested Tanager – Tachyphonus cristatus brunneus
We saw 2 at Fazenda Angelim on the 13th and 15th and 20 at Corcovado on the 14th.

Ruby-crowned Tanager – Tachyphonus coronatus
Singles were identified on four dates at Serra dos Tucanos, Canastra NP, the Agulhas Negras road and Itatiaia NP.

White-lined Tanager – Tachyphonus rufus
Seen on seven dates at sites including Serra dos Orgaos NP, Serra dos Tucanos where the daily maximum of 8 was seen on the 30th, Ubatuba and Itatiaia NP.

Black-goggled Tanager – Trichothraupis melanops
Seen on fifteen dates at sites including Serra dos Orgaos NP, Serra dos Tucanos, Caraca NP, Canastra NP, Ubatuba where a daily maximum of 12 were seen on the 14th and Itatiaia NP. Often seen attending Antswarms. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as rare in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations.

Red-crowned Ant-Tanager – Habia rubica rubica
We saw 1 at Serra dos Orgaos NP on the 27th, 1 at Serra dos Tucanos on the 30th and 3 at Fazenda Angelim on the 13th.

Hepatic Tanager – Piranga flava saira
We saw a pair in trees by the monastery at Caraca NP on the 5th.

Brazilian Tanager – Ramphocelus bresilius dorsalis (Endemic)
We saw 2 males at the Lodge at Serra dos Tucanos on the 30th, and up to 7 daily on all three dates at Ubatuba.

Sayaca Tanager – Thraupis sayaca sayaca
Seen on twenty dates at sites including Serra dos Tucanos, Caraca NP, Cipo, Canastra NP, Ubatuba and Itatiaia NP where the daily maximum of 20 were seen on the 16th. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as common in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations.




Sayaca Tanager at Serra dos Tucanos.

Azure-shouldered Tanager – Thraupis cyanoptera (Endemic)
We saw a pair along the San Pedro Trail at Serra dos Orgaos NP on the 27th and 1 there on the 28th and 2 at Serra dos Tucanos on the 1st and 1 there on the 2nd. TBW (2000) treats this species as Near-threatened as agricultural conversion and deforestation for mining and plantation production are historic threats to its lowland forests.

Golden-chevroned Tanager – Thraupis ornate (Endemic)
Seen on eight dates at sites including Serra dos Tucanos, Fazenda Angelim and Itatiaia NP where the daily maximum of 20 was recorded on the 17th.



Golden Chevroned Tanager in Itatiaia National Park

Palm Tanager – Thraupis palmarum palmarum
Up to 3 were seen daily on three dates at Serra dos Tucanos and singles were seen at Ubatuba on two dates.

Diademed Tanager – Stephanophorus diadematus
Only seen along the Agulhas Negras road where we saw 20 on the 15th and 60 the following day.




 

Diademed Tanager along the Agulhas Negras Road

Purple-throated Euphonia – Euphonia chlorotica serrirostris
We identified singles at Serra dos Tucanos on the 30th and at Caraca NP on the 4th.



Male Purple Throated Euphonia at Serra dos Tucanos.

Violaceous Euphonia – Euphonia violacea auranticollis
We saw 2 at Serra dos Tucanos on the 29th.

Chestnut-bellied Euphonia – Euphonia pectoralis
Seen on eight dates at sites including Serra dos Orgaos NP, Serra dos Tucanos, Ubatuba at Itatiaia NP where the daily maximum of 10 was seen on the 17th.




Male Chestnut Bellied Euphonia at Serra dos Tucanos.

Blue-naped Chlorophonia – Chlorophonia cyanea cyanea
We saw up to 8 in a flowering tree near the monastery at Caraca NP on two dates and up to 12 at the Hotel Ype feeders in Itatiaia NP on two dates. Superb.






A pair of Blue Naped Chlorophonias at Itatiaia Nat. Park.


Male Blue Naped Chlorophonia with male Green-headed Tanager at Itatiaia N.Pk.

Green-headed Tanager – Tangara seledon
Seen on eight dates at sites including Serra dos Tucanos, Ubatuba and Itatiaia NP where the daily maximum of 15 were seen at the Hotel Ype feeders on the 17th.






Green Headed Tanager in Itatiaia National Park

Red-necked Tanager – Tangara cyanocephala cyanocephala
We saw up to 15 daily on three dates around the Lodge at Serra dos Tucanos and up to 15 daily on two dates at Ubatuba. Superb.


Male Red-necked Tanager at Serra dos Tucanos.

Brassy-breasted Tanager – Tangara desmaresti (Endemic)
Seen on seven dates at sites including Serra dos Orgaos NP, Serra dos Tucanos where the daily maximum of 60 were seen on the 2nd, Caraca NP and Itatiaia NP.



Brassy Breasted Tanager at Serra dos Tucanos.

Gilt-edged Tanager – Tangara cyanoventris (Endemic)
Seen on seven dates at sites including Caraca NP, Canastra NP where the daily maximum of 12 weas seen on the 11th and Itatiaia NP. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as common in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations.

Burnished-buff Tanager – Tangara cayana chloroptera
Seen on twelve dates at sites including Serra dos Orgaos NP, Serra dos Tucanos, Caraca NP, Cipo where the daily maximum of 8 were seen on the 7th, Canastra NP and the Agulhas Negras road. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as common in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations.

Blue Dacnis – Dacnis cayana paraguayensis
Seen on seventeen dates at sites including Serra dos Orgaos NP, Serra dos Tucanos where the daily maximum of 6 were seen on the 2nd, Caraca NP, Cipo, Canastra NP, Ubatuba and Itatiaia NP. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as common in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations.

Green Honeycreeper – Chlorophanes spiza axillaris
A single individual was seen at Serra dos Tucanos on the 30th.

Chestnut-vented Conebill – Conirostrum speciosum speciosum
We saw 2 in the grounds of the Serra dos Tucanos Lodge on the 30th.

Swallow Tanager – Tersina viridis viridis
We saw 4 in the good forest near Jose de Barreiro (see Forrester (1993)) on the 11th, 3 at Fazenda Angelim on the 13th and 3 at Fazenda Capricorno on the 14th. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as common in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations.

Rufous-collared Sparrow – Zonotrichia capensis
Seen on eighteen dates at sites including Serra dos Tucanos, Caraca NP, Cipo, Canastra NP, Ubatuba, the Agulhas Negras road where the daily maximum of 25 were seen on the 16th and Itatiaia NP. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as common in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations.

Grassland Sparrow – Ammodramus humeralis
We saw 4 at Cipo on the 7th and up to 50 daily on three dates at Canastra NP. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as common in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations.

Bay-chested Warbling-Finch – Poospiza thoracica (Endemic)
This species was only seen along the Agulhas Negras road where 2 were seen on the 15th and 15 the following day.


 

Bay Chested Warbling Finch along the Agulhas Negras Road

Red-rumped Warbling-Finch – Poospiza lateralis lateralis
This species was only seen along the Agulhas Negras road where 6 were seen on the 15th and 10 the following day.

Cinereous Warbling-Finch – Poospiza cinerea (Endemic)
We saw 2 along the road beyond the summit at Cipo on the 7th. TBW (2000) treats this species as Vulnerable owing to a rapid and ongoing reduction in suitable habitat with the conversion to agriculture being massive since 1950.

Striped-tailed Yellow-Finch – Sicalis citrina citrina
We saw 20 on top of the escarpment at Canastra NP on the 10th. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as common in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations.



Striped Tailed Yellow-Finch at Canastra Nat. Park.

Saffron Finch – Sicalis flaveola
Seen on eight dates at sites including Semiduro, Serra dos Tucanos, Canastra NP and Ubatuba where the daily maximum of 15 was seen on the 13th.

Grassland Yellow-Finch – Sicalis luteola
We tentatively identified just 2 at Semiduro on the 29th.

Wedge-tailed Grass-Finch – Emberizoides herbicola herbicola
We saw 1 at Canastra NP on the 9th. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as common in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations.

Great Pampa-Finch – Embernagra platensis platensis
We saw 1 on the 8th and 2 on the 10th in the foothills between Sao Roque de Minas and the entrance gate of Canastra NP on top of the escarpment (see Forrester (1993)). This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as common in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations.

Pale-throated Serra-Finch – Embernagra longicauda (Endemic)
We saw 1 along the Piscina Trail at Caraca NP and 1 near the Cipo summit on the 6th and 3 at a marshy area near the Cipo summit on the 7th. TBW (2000) treats this species as Near-threatened stating that increasing conversion of land for cattle ranching is presumably the principal threat,

Blue-black Grassquit – Velatinia jacarina jacarina
We saw 2 near the good forest near Jose de Barreiro (see Forrester (1993)) on the 11th and 2 at Ubatuba on the 14th. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as common in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations.

Yellow-bellied Seedeater – Sporophila nigricollis nigricollis
JFC saw 8 at Canastra NP on the 11th. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as common in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations.

Dubois Seedeater – Sporophila ardesiaca (Endemic)
We saw a male along the Ponte Dobode Trail at Caraca NP on the 4th, a male at Canastra NP on the 9th and a pair there the following day.



Dubois Seedeater along the Ponte Dobode Trail at Caraca NPk.

 Double-collared Seedeater – Sporophila caerulescens
We saw a flock of 8 at Semiduro on the 29th, 1 at Canastra on the 8th and 3 there the next day and 1 at Itatiaia NP on the 16th.

Green-winged Saltator – Saltator similes
We saw 1 at Serra dos Tucanos on the 30th and pairs at Carara NP on both the 5th and 6th.

Thick-billed Saltator – Saltator maxillosus
We saw a pair along the Bamboo Trail at Serra dos Tucanos on the 1st and another pair near Hotel Ype in Itatiaia NP on the 17th.

Black-throated Saltator – Saltator atricollis
We saw 2 at Cipo on the 6th and 6 there the following day, 8 at Canastra on the 9th and 2 there on the 11th. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as common in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations.


Black Throated Saltator at Canastra National Park

Yellow-billed Blue Finch – Porphyrospiza caerulescens
We saw a fine male near the Cipo summit on the 7th, 3 at Canastra on the 10th and 3 there the following day. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as rare in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations. TBW (2000) treats this species as Near-threatened as habitat conversion to agriculture, for Eucalyptus plantations, soybeans and pasture for exportable crops have severely impacted its habitat, particularly in Brazil. Two thirds of cerrado habitat had been extensively or significantly modified by 1993, with most destruction having occurred since 1950.

Crested Oropendola – Psarocolius decumanus
Seen on fifteen dates at sites including Serra dos Tucanos, Caraca NP, Canastra NP and Ubatuba where the daily maximum of 8 was seen on the 13th. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as common in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations.

Red-rumped Cacique – Cacicus haemorrhous affinis
We saw 10 at Fazenda Angelim on the 13th and 2 at Ubatuba the following day and up to 25 daily on three dates at Itatiaia NP.

Golden-winged Cacique – Cacicus chrysopterus
We saw 2 at the small farm along the Agulhas Negras road on the 15th.

Chestnut-capped Blackbird – Agelaius ruficapillus
We saw 25 at Itatiaia Marsh on the 19th proving the last new species of the trip.

White-browed (Red-breasted) Blackbird – Sturnella superciliaris
We saw 2 males near Semiduro on the 3rd.

Yellow-rumped Marshbird – Pseudoleistes guirahuro
We saw a male on leaving Caraca NP on the 6th, 6 below the escarpment at Canastra NP on the 9th and 2 there on the 11th. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as common in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations.

Chopi Blackbird – Gnorimopsar chopi chopi
We saw 25 in palms at Cipo village on the 7th and 10 there the following day and 3 at Canastra NP on the 10th and 10 there the following day. This species is listed by Silveira (1998) as common in Serra da Canastra NP and adjacent areas based on the author’s observations.

Shiny Cowbird – Molothrus bonariensis bonariensis
Seen on six dates at sites including Semiduro where the daily maximum of 20 was seen on the 3rd, Canastra NP and Itatiaia NP.

Giant Cowbird – Molothrus oryzivorus oryzivora
We saw 4 near Teresopolis on the 27th and 4 at Semiduro on the 29th.

Hooded Siskin – Carduelis magellanica
We saw a pair near the Cipo summit on the 7th and a pair near the pool along the Agulhas Negras road on the 16th.

House Sparrow – Passer domesticus
Seen or heard on six dates at Sao Roque de Minas where the daily maximum of 12 was seen on the 9th and Ubatuba.

Abbreviations used in Systematic List for references as follows:

TBW (2000)
BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

Ferguson-Lees (2001)
Ferguson-Lees, J. and Christie, D.A. (2001) Raptors of the world. London: Christopher Helm.

Forrester (1993)
Forrester, B. C. (1993) Birding Brazil: a check-list and site guide. Irvine, Scotland: privately published.

HBW (1992)
Del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A. and Sargatal, J., eds. (1992) Handbook of the birds of the world, 1. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions.

HBW (1994)
Del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A. and Sargatal, J., eds. (1994) Handbook of the birds of the world, 2. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions.

HBW (1996)
Del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A. and Sargatal, J., eds. (1996) Handbook of the birds of the world, 3. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions.

HBW (1997)
Del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A. and Sargatal, J., eds. (1997) Handbook of the birds of the world, 4. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions.

HBW (1999)
Del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A. and Sargatal, J., eds. (1999) Handbook of the birds of the world, 5. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions.

HBW (2001)
Del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A. and Sargatal, J., eds. (2001) Handbook of the birds of the world, 6. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions.

HBW (2002)
Del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A. and Sargatal, J., eds. (2002) Handbook of the birds of the world, 7. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions.

Silveira (1998)
Silveira, L.F. (1998) The birds of Serra da Canastra National Park and adjacent areas, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Cotinga 10: 55-65.

JvW (2001)
van der Woude, J. (2001) Birding sites – trip report SE Brazil 2001. Privately published.

References, in addition to the above, used to attempt to identify to subspecies level:

Clements, J.F. (2000) Birds of the World: A Checklist. Pica Press.


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